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Lõik materjalist

Powerlifting
Powerlifting is a strength sport, consisting of three events:

 Squat
 Bench press
 Deadlift

Each competitor is allowed three attempts on each lift. The lifter’s best valid attempt on each lift
counts toward his competition total.
Competitors are judged against other lifters of the same gender, weight class, and age.
Powerlifting requires specialized training techniques that are focused on strength and
explosive power. Traditional training methods dictated low repetitions with maximal weight.

History
Started to develop in the late 19th century, when weightlifting was just beginning to develop
as a sport .

Led by the United States and Great Britain, the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF)
was founded in 1973 and held the first world championships that year. That spurred the
establishment of the European Powerlifting Federation in 1974.

Currently, the IFP has more than 70 member countries, while something over 20 countries
belong to the WPC.

Bench press

The bench press is a exercise in which, while lying on his back, the person performing the
bench press lowers a weight to the level of the chest, then pushes it back up until the arm is
straight and the elbows are locked. The exercise focuses on the development of the upper
body muscles.

Form

There is a specific form to the bench press which reduces the chance of injury and maximally
challenges the muscles of the chest. A barbell bench press starting position is to be lying on a
bench, with the shoulder blades pinched together to avoid recruiting the anterior deltoid
during the lift. Feet are kept flat on the ground or end of the bench, with the buttocks always
in contact with the bench. The weight is gripped with hands equidistant from the center of the
bar, with the elbows bent to 90° and the elbows beneath the wrists. Movement starts by lifting
the bar off the pins, and lowering it until it touches the chest. The weight is then pushed off
the chest, terminating when the arms are straight, at which point the weight can be lowered
again. After the desired number of repetitions, the bar is returned to the pins. Because of the
heavy weight that can be used and the position of the bar, a 'spotting partner' increases the
safety of the movement at heavier weights.
Variations

Variations are intended to work different subgroups of muscles, or work the same muscles in
slightly different ways

 Angle
 Hand position
 Type of weights- perform with dumbbells.

Spotter

Becouse of the heavy weight, it is recommended to ask your partner’s help. He is also called
as spotter. If he sees, that you can not press barbell because of strength lost, he helps you to
put the barbell back on the pins.

Possible injuries
Incorrect form may lead to multiple types of injuries including:
 torn in shoulders muscles.
 back injuries due to bridging
 injuries to the trapezius muscle.
 elbow/wrist strains.
 cracked or broken ribs, usually the result of bouncing the bar off of the chest to add
momentum to the lift or a loss of strength causing the bar to fall onto the chest.



To avoid injuries:
 wrist wraps
 lift belt
 bench press shirt
 right technique

Records

The world record for assisted bench press is held by Ryan Kennelly with a total weight of
1,070 lbs (485.3 kg)
The heaviest bench press without any equipment to assist is held by Scot Mendelson with a
lift of 715 lbs (324.3 kg)
Squat
The squat is a lower body exercise. The squat is often called "the king of exercises" by those
who believe it capable of inducing more and faster muscle growth than any other
exercise.

The squat is performed by bending the legs at the knees and hips, lowering the torso between
the legs, and then reversing direction to stand up straight again. The torso leans forward to
maintain balance. Proper technique is critical, otherwise very serious injuries or gradual injury
over a period of time can occur. The back must maintain its natural curvature and not "round
out". Lifting belts can be used to help support the lower back.

To avoid the chance of getting stuck under the bar, heavy barbell squats are best performed
either inside a power cage or in the presence of one or more spotters, who can help to safely
return the barbell to the squat rack at the end of the set if the lifter is unable to do so.

The squat has a number of variants:


• Back squat - the bar is held on the back of the body at the base of the neck or lower
across the upper back. In powerlifting, the barbell is often held in a lower position in
order to create a lever advantage, while, in weightlifting, the barbell is often held in a
higher position in order to keep the torso more upright in a deep squat. These
variations are called low bar and high bar, respectively.
• Front squat - the weight (usually a barbell) is held in front of the body across the
clavicles and deltoids in either a clean grip, as is used in weightlifting, or with the
arms crossed and hands placed on top of the barbell.
• Overhead squat - a barbell is held overhead in a wide-arm snatch grip; however, it is
also possible to use a closer grip if flexibility allows.
• Box squat - lifter sits back onto a short box, momentarily relaxing the hip flexors,
before contracting them and rising off the box; the use of a box sets a consistent depth
and increases emphasis on the muscles of the posterior chain.
• Zercher squatt - the bar his held in the crooks of the arms, on the inside of the elbow.
• Hack squat - a barbell is held in the hands just behind the legs; it was invented by
early 1900s professional wrestler Georg Hackenschmidt.
• Sissy squat - a dumbbell is held behind the legs while the heels are lifted off the
ground and the torso remains flat while the lifter leans backwards; sometimes done
with a plate held on the chest and one arm holding onto a chair or beam for support.
• Pistol squat - a freestanding one-legged squat where the non-lifting leg is held in free
space.
• Split squat - an assisted one-legged squat where the non-lifting leg is rested on the
ground a few 'steps' behind the lifter, as if it were a static lunge.
• Bulgarian squat is performed much like a split squat, but the foot of the non-lifting
leg is rested on a knee-high platform behind the lifter.
• Hindu squat - is done without weight where the heels are raised and body weight is
placed on the toes; the knees track far past the toes.
• Jump squat - a plyometrics exercise where the squatter jumps off the floor at the top
of the lift.
• Air squat - done with no weight or barbell, often at higher repetitions than other
variants.

Deadlift
The deadlift is exercise where one lifts a loaded barbell off the ground from a stabilized bent-
over position. It is an excellent exercise for overall body development if done properly.

History
Deadlift got its name somewhere around 200 B.C. in Rome. After military battles young
Roman soldiers would go out onto the field and lift their fallen comrades onto wagons to later
be buried. Literally "lifting the dead." This was used not only to get soldiers used to battle and
death, but to also increase strength in their back.

World records

The record under WPO powerlifting rules is 1,003 pounds (455 kg) by Andy Bolton.

Injury

Most injureies happens to the spine, because of the wrong technique. To avoid injuries a
powerlifter can use lifting belt and lifting fleshing. Also It is very important to use right
technique.

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